The Printed Circuit Board: What is it? Who invented it? What is it made from? What is it used for?

The printed circuit board is one of the greatest inventions in terms of technology. The common applications of PCB assembly are television sets, radio sets, cellular phones and gaming gadgets.

What is PCB assembly? What is it made from? A printed circuit board is the interconnection of electronic components attached on a non-conductive base. A printed circuit board has 2 basic parts, the thin leads and the substrate or base. The thin leads, electrically conductive, are commonly made of metal. The base or substrate is made of non-conductive materials. Some of the raw materials used to manufacture PCBs are laminates, copper foil, copper-clad laminates, and epoxy-coated glass fabric (known as prepregs).

PCB assemblyThere are 3 general types of boards: single-sided, double-sided and multilayered. The single-sided type has the leads or conductors attached on only one side of the board, while double-sided boards are types where conductors cross from one side to the opposite side of the substrate. Several layers of printed circuits make up the multilayered type.

PCB assembly is electrically done using different technologies. The two known methods are “surface-mount” and “through-hole” technologies. The first, the surface-mount technology, is a method where conductors are directly attached or soldered to the substrate. USB flash drives are an example of this technology. The older method, through-hole method, uses the method of leads passing through tiny holes on the base, and soldered to connect to the circuits pads on the other side of the substrate. One perfect example of this type is the personal computer.

Who are the people behind printed circuit boards? PCB changed in many ways and continually changes up to this time, and many inventors and innovators are involved. Some of them are Albert Hanson, Thomas Edison, Charles Ducas and Paul Eisler. The German inventor, Albert Hanson, invented his version of the PCB in 1903. He made use of flat conductive foil placed onto an insulated board, which formed several layers. Chemical method of plating conductors attached on linen paper was invented by Thomas Edison in 1904. Next is Charles Ducas who utilized inks, which are conductive of electrical charges, printed on stencils. This electroplating method of Ducas was invented in 1925. Paul Eisler of Austria invented the PCB for radio sets in 1936.

Eisler’s invention made it to the eyesight of the US Military during the Second World War. One of the greatest breakthroughs of PCB was during this war as it was used to detonate bombs, and used as proximity fuse. It gave way to the victory of the USA against Germany. The PCB concept became commercialized in mid 1950s. In 1961, Hazeltine Corporation patented their version of the printed circuit board. Hazeltine’s design is through-holed and multilayered. Compound designs came out, in which modern-day PCB originated. Integrated circuit chips were invented in the 1970s.

PCB assembly in general continually improved, and more uses of the PCBs were discovered. Combination of modern manufacturing techniques and printed circuit designs resulted in great changes.

What are the common applications of the PCB? Way back, the PCB was used by the military to ignite bombs. In the modern world, almost every electronic apparatus is made of the PCB. PCB is the foundation of communication devices, gaming gadgets, appliances, automobiles, and many others. It is also applicable in large industries with electronic and automatic controls, like in power plants, and factories.

Wrapping it all up, the printed circuit board started small and unnoticed, yet made it today. At present, this intricate invention makes day-to-day life less complicated in the office, at home, in school, in factories, and in every place you know.

Picking Golf Drivers the Right Way: 5 Factors to Remember

Experienced golfers know that picking golf drivers based on their appearance is not the best way to ensure a good performance. In fact, there is more than one golfer in the field today struggling with their game to a poorly-picked driver. It’s not that the driver was of poor condition per se, it was just that it was not right for the person. Here are a few things to think about when looking for a golf driver.


The right amount of loft in a driver will determine how well you will play in a game. Most golfers think that golf drivers with lower lofts will result in a longer distance covered. The truth, however, is quite the opposite. If you have a swing speed of over 100 mph and have the tendency to hit the ball in a long way, the best loft will be at 12 degrees or less as this reduces backspin. If your swing speed is at 90 mph and less, it is best to find a golf driver with a higher loft so as to keep the ball airborne for as long as possible.


golf driversAs of now, golf drivers have shafts either made in steel and graphite. Out of the two, graphite is the more expensive option but it is lighter in weight. This allows the golfer to transfer the full strength of their swing to the ball, making it fly as far as possible. As such, these drivers are ideal for beginners who are still building up on their swing speed. For experienced golfers, steel shafts are more ideal as the heavy weight allows for more control over the ball’s trajectory. If you have been playing for quite a while and can reach swing speeds of 100 mph and above, these drivers are considered best in optimizing your abilities.

Trajectory Rating

By definition, trajectory is the path that an object takes in flight depending on the amount of force inflicted on it and various factors found in the environment. For golf drivers, trajectory rating is dependent on the amount of loft they have and the center of gravity in the club head. Depending on the golf courses you tend to play in, it is best to pick a driver that has a clear trajectory of rating to clear a lot of obstacles like trees and sand traps.


For beginners, a driver with high forgiveness rating is quite important as this will improve their game considerably. After all, there is no telling how many obstacles they will get themselves into before they perfect the art of letting the ball fly through the air towards the intended target. To determine a driver’s forgiveness rating, take a look at the size of the club head. Larger club sizes tend to have higher forgiveness ratings as they allow for more control over the ball. Fortunately, manufacturers tend to print the forgiveness rating in the driver’s club or shaft to help golfers.


One of the most overlooked factors in buying golf drivers would have to be their length. Most of the time, you will find a golfer either swinging a club that is too long or too short for him to play properly. Either way, an incorrect club length will hinder your game play as it forces your body to adopt a position that prevents you from shifting your entire weight in each shot. When picking the right length, make sure that the club is roughly the same size to your arm. This way, you can be certain of swinging the club easily, leading to an accurate shot.

How to Improve Your Business’ Live Chat Service

Not all live chat service practices are applicable to all kinds of businesses. While the use of the chat service to improve customer practices, there are still chat sessions that would probably cause you your sales.

In order to ensure that you are employing the right tactics in your business’ live chat service, always keep in mind that you need to ensure that everyone handling the chat services is equipped with the right knowledge in two key areas: product knowledge and etiquette for chat. While it seems that having the appropriate skills to help customers know the features and benefits of your products is necessary, also keep in mind that any chat representative should know that customers are not likely to entertain a business that does not seem to understand their needs. These are the key concerns that your chat service should pay attention to.

Live Chat Service Should Represent Your Business

Your live chat service would always be the reminder to your customer that he is in the right website, and that the representative is indeed your employee. They need to feel that they are talking to the right person that is equipped to answer their inquiries. If your chat window does not appear like the rest of the website, it will be dismissed as an annoying popup. If your representative does seem to take too long to find the information that he needs within seconds, consider that potential customer lost.

Chat Representatives Should Understand Customer Behavior

live chat serviceThere is nothing more annoying than a chat window that appears even before a customer starts navigating in the website. At the same time, there is nothing more irritating than a customer service representative who does not seem to speak the same language as the customer. For that reason, it is not enough for a chat representative to know everything about your business. For what it’s worth, it would even be more beneficial for you if your representatives understand the customer more.

Customers only like to buy from salesmen that they like. That is why your representatives need to establish rapport first, before attempting to offer anything. Without the proper invitation from customers that they need help with their shopping, representatives are more likely to meet resistance if they offer help at the wrong time. If they fail to recognize that the customer has been asking the same questions before, they fail to be efficient and they might also drive the customer to your competitor’s site.

Displaying Product Knowledge is Not Being Robotic

One of the common mistakes of chat representatives is that they tend to paste canned responses too often, especially if they know that the customer is looking for information that is found in any online database. Some representatives also tend to paste comments and greetings, because they are following their chat flow. However, customers can detect representatives that are disinterested in them. Even if that is not the point, representatives may make the customers feel that they are talking to a robot, not a live chat representative.

To prevent that from happening, it would be helpful for chat representatives to learn how to naturally talk to customers, as they would do in real life. They need to identify points in the chat conversation wherein the customer requires empathy from the representative, instead of just a dictation of which URLs they need to go to.

At the same time, recognize that customers are more likely to offer you the conversion that you need when your customer service representatives offer the humanly comfort that they require from you. They are more likely to avail of the value-added products that you offer, which you require chat representatives to provide.

Buy Instagram Followers for SMO

Much like the real world, the world of social media can be harsh and unforgiving at times. People who own at least one social media account are acting on their basic instinct: to attract attention. The results vary: they gain admirers, they gain other people who at least share their opinions and preferences, they gain virtual enemies who are at odds with them on any type of topic, or they gain nothing. If you gain something positive, good. You are on the right track to stardom. If you gain something negative, you need to fix at least one thing that is wrong with you or your account – sometimes even both. If you gain nothing, you might have the worst luck in the world.

The practice of search engine optimization (SEO) has found its way into social media; and appropriately, it is called social media optimization, or SMO. As with SEO, the advantages of implementing SMO should be obvious: increased exposure to your page, increased brand awareness (especially if you own a business), and being the talk of the town, whatever site you may land on.

Instagram was just a simple photo-sharing app where people would just peek more at the photos more than the words. And ever since the app’s acquisition by Facebook and its release on Android, its popularity exploded, prompting crafty people to label it a social network and leveraging its potential powers for optimization. The logic when at Instagram: more followers, more exposure. Then a strategy is formulated: buy Instagram followers, implement SMO. It is a simple logical theory, but it can be quite an effort when it is actually done.

intagramAs with SEO, SMO comes in different flavors, good and bad. Good SEO/SMO is called white hat SEO/SMO; while bad SEO/SMO is called black hat SEO/SMO. The middle ground is called gray hat SEO/SMO. In the realm of social media, white hat practices of improving exposure include manually spreading the word about the photo not just on Instagram, but also on other social networks; as well as having famous websites and/or celebrities link to your photos. If you own multiple social media accounts, then good for you. You can cross-link things between your accounts to get the needed exposure. This is the standard practice for companies in recent years. On the other hand, black hat practices on social media include hashtag abuse and links to malware which are disguised as something else with the use of social engineering. This is the reason why Instagram nowadays implements a 30-hastag limit.

If you buy Instagram followers, you will be treading on the gray hat area. The practice itself is neither good nor bad – the SMO companies use it to either legitimately add the followers you need, or cause ruckus on Instagram by flooding it with spambots, compromised accounts, and pictures that look legitimate at first, but are actually something else.

So before you buy Instagram followers, you must first check the reputations of SMO companies you plan to use. Search for legitimate reviews on mainstream sites, and steer clear of bogus review sites that rig their opinions of illegitimate “buy Instagram followers” sites just to make easy money. Consult trusted SEO/SMO experts, as they will most likely have the final word on who to rely on and who to avoid.

Instagram and social media in general are just outlets for us humans to express and sell ourselves. We can have fun with social media, or we can do serious business with it. Humans have an innate desire of craving for attention, and social media just amplifies that desire. But make sure that this desire inside you does not take over.

Misting Fans : A Cheaper Way to Cool Down

What Are Misting Fans?

Also known as evaporative coolers or wet air coolers, misting fans work much like how sweat lowers body temperature – through water evaporation. This is very much different from air conditioning systems that use vapour compression and employs coolant or refrigerants like Freon. Misting fans, on the other hand, depend on what is called enthalpy of vaporization.

As water transitions from liquid into water vapour through the evaporation process, the dry air’s temperature can drop significantly. Although air conditioning systems can provide lower air temperatures than evaporative coolers, the latter has the advantage of using less energy. Misting fans also have fewer components to maintain to even lower the cost of ownership.

misting fansThe earliest form of evaporative coolers was invented thousands of years ago in Persia (now Iran). Hot air passes through wind shafts and then passed over subterranean water where it is cooled, and then distributed throughout the house or building. Modern evaporative coolers use a water reservoir and an electric fan that uses the same principle. These are based on a 1945 design where a pump is used to circulate water over excelsior pads. When the water evaporates, the air cools down. These coolers are more effective in places where air is dry because they depend on increasing the humidity in air to lower the temperature.

Auramist Misting Fans

Auramist is a company located in Nashville that specializes in the development, manufacturing, sales and distribution of a wide variety of misting fans. The company’s mission is to provide comfort, safety, and enhanced productivity through the use of coolers in working and living environments. Using a patented and proprietary misting technology, the nozzles in the Auramist mist fans break down water into microscopic levels to product a very fine mist of water.


While most evaporative coolers use around a gallon of water per hour of usage, Auramist misting fans need only a pint. That translates to almost 80 percent less water consumption compared to other misting systems.

Auramist mist fans are also known for energy efficiency. The patented nozzle and misting technology uses about 20 PSI of pressure to produce very fine water droplets that almost feel dry to the touch. Energy and power usage is reduced while quality and performance remains. The misting fan products from Auramist are safe, serviceable, and sustainable.

Innovation and Variety

The research and development team of Auramist work hard and use the latest technologies and materials to come up with increasingly innovative products. The goal is to provide customers more comfort and an improved lifestyle without sacrificing the environment. Typical air conditioning systems use chemicals like CFCs and Freon to cool down air temperature. Mist fans use only air and water making them more nature friendly.

Auramist products are as varied as the requirement and situations for each cooling need. A wide range of misting fans is available according to the specifications of the customers. There is always an Auramist misting fan for every situation. A quick check on their site can provide a glimpse of what they offer. From indoor, to industrial, to golf car coolers, Auramist has got the customers covered.

Quality and Warranty

Using only the finest and strongest materials, confidence in Auramist products is enhanced with the limited warranty that covers their products against defects for 12 months.

Mist fans are the perfect companions during those hot, dry days and nights. And because they use much less energy than air conditioning systems, operational costs are kept to a minimum which means they can be used for longer hours in a day.

Author Bio:

Auramist the leading manufacturer and provider of the highest quality Misting fans, Mister, Misting Systems and innovative cooling Fans. Auramist misting fans are equipped with cutting-edge technology with 75 patents. You can trust the Auramist brand to keep you cool and comfortable in your home or on your patio.

Best treadmill desk care tips

A treadmill desk functions as exercise equipment and a workstation at the same time. The person using the treadmill can attend to their work while being able to integrate exercise into their routine. Any user will need to take extra precaution to take care of the equipment and keep it functioning well.

The best treadmill desk should always be maintained to keep it clean and to ensure that the conveyor belt is working properly. This prevents injuries while you work out. Here are some care tips for your treadmill.

Find the right spot

Best treadmill deskYou should place the treadmill in a place where the floor is level to keep the machine stable. This will also prevent the motor and belt from dislodging during your workout. If you cannot find a flat surface to place your treadmill, try to adjust its position using supports.


Make sure to wipe the sweat from the treadmill every time you finish working. Human sweat has acidic compounds that can damage the belt on the equipment. It can also make the belt very slippery. This can be dangerous for the next user.

Keep the dust away

You need to remove dust and dirt to keep your best treadmill desk functioning properly. Grime can impede the mechanics of the treadmill. It can also affect the movement of the belt. Make it a habit to clean the treadmill once a week. Use a dry cloth to wipe dirt from the belt and use a damp cloth to wipe the desk and the monitor. This will also prevent clutter from pilling up in your work desk. Avoid using oil or polishing materials on the equipment to prevent stripping the good oil from the treadmill.

Keep work desk materials minimal

Your desk should only contain the most important stuff. You do not want to keep picture frames and heavy memorabilia in your desk since this might fall and damage the treadmill belt. Also, do not leave mugs and open liquid containers on the desk to avoid spillage. If you wish to take a coffee break, take a time out from work and rest somewhere else.

Check the belt

Make sure that you check the belt every month to ensure that it is properly aligned and that the seat is in its secure place. There are screws at the back of the machine which will allow you to loosen or tighten the belt. Seek assistance from the manufacturer or from the store where you brought the treadmill desk if you encounter problems with your machine. The best treadmill desk does not generally need too much lubrication so you may only grease it a few times.

Keep it slow

The recommended pace for a working desk is about 2 miles per hour. The main goal of using the equipment in the first place is to keep the employee from being sedentary. Even the best treadmill desk is not intended to provide intense aerobic exercise but rather to keep your metabolism going.

Electrical systems protection

Most home treadmills including the best treadmill desk use electronic consoles that are completely controlled by computers. These computer systems can be damaged by power surges. Protect your machine from damage by connecting it to an outlet that is properly grounded.

Always make sure that your treadmills are in their proper condition. Some people might think that fitness equipment can work just fine without proper maintenance but machines can develop small failures that can result to more serious problems later on. Remember that nothing is worse than working out using poorly maintained equipment since it can increase your risk of injury and you might not be getting the results you want.

Signature has been at the front of the best treadmill desk surge that is sweeping our country since 2009.

6 Mistakes The Best SEO Company Will Not Make

When starting with SEO a lot of mistakes are made. No matter how technically savvy you are, you’ll find that you will run into scams, spam, bad advice, and gurus that swear they have found the holy grail of optimization strategies. Just one look through forums dedicated to marketing and you will find that snake oil salesmen are lurking for attention and will gladly take your money and deliver nothing. SEO is not a “cure all” for bad web design, or even a decline in popularity.

At one point or another you’re going to want to hire someone to do the work for you. There are some tell-tale signs you will need to know when looking at hiring a company, especially if you want to get the best SEO company out there. Consider looking out for the following mistakes, and if the experts you want to hire have these elements in place on their site or their client’s websites, you know they are not doing a good job.

Changing Your Main Keywords:

If you ask for specific industry keywords,Best SEO Companythe best SEO company will not only use them, they will add to them. They won’t change them, they’ll use the ones you have and then add to them in long tail formatting. Many clients are often misled about the importance of keywords, and it’s the role of an expert to deliver on the promise of promotional consideration across the internet. If you find that they want to change everything about your company, or try to go through a different path, be wary. Unless they have proof that your keywords are absolutely awful, don’t go with anyone that’s going to change everything.

Stuffing Keyword Phrases Into Content:

Look at any previous client that the company you want to hire has done work for. Pay attention to the content that they’ve created for others. Look at the repetition that they’ve used for the keywords of their client. You can easily pick this out because it will be repeated often. If you run into content that is heavy on repetition, and doesn’t at all serve the purpose of guiding your eye, then it’s bad. Bad content will always get penalized, it just will.

Links From Grey Areas:

Backlink creation is something that the best SEO company as a standard point of operation. No company today is working with SEO properly if they aren’t building these types of one way links. You want them to come from top notch sites, not just random locales. If you get a list of sites that you’re getting links from and they are not top notch, main level domains, be careful.

No Links At All:

Some companies go the opposite direction, telling their webmasters to not build links out or in. Having no links is awful. It tells search engines that your site is not trustworthy or that it’s so new that it may not be relevant to the end users that are searching for specific keyword phrases. Avoid any company that doesn’t provide any links at all.

Ignoring Algorithm Changes:

There are certain iconoclasts out there that will gladly shake their heads at any claim that search engines have changed their algorithm. Most recently, Google did a huge shift, and some experts denied that it happened. These same experts are touting their business as the best SEO company and you will find them hovering over the bottom barrel of pricing services on the web. Be careful with anyone that has hubris in regards to their work, if they aren’t charging very much at all. It’s rare to find a company that has rock bottom prices, and high quality delivery.

Abandoning Web Projects:

The best in the business will not abandon your project mid-way. They also will not just take your money and pawn the work off to a foreign source and claim that you’re getting top notch work. You’ll be able to track their work and see results. The best SEO company will always deliver for you, and that’s something guaranteed.

3 Reasons To Learn Basic SEO

There are a lot of people that want to have a website today. In the past, you couldn’t just set up a page in a few minutes, but with today’s modern technology, anyone can set up a domain and have a fully functional site within a matter of minutes. The cost ratio has also gone down, with many offerings only being around $8 a month or even less. If you have an idea, even if it’s a complicated one, there is infrastructure that can definitely help you get moving forward. It all starts with an idea, and then seeking out the right tools to implement the pages. Once the site is set up, it’s imperative to look at traffic generation properly, and perhaps even learn basic SEO.

Everyone has to deal with traffic,Basic SEO and this is not something that will go away. If you have any type of site, even if it is 1 page on the web, you need visitors. A steady stream of visitors can be the life blood of your business. You don’t just want hits, however, you want targeted visitors that will respond whatever it is you’re posting on the web. In order to get this moving forward, you will need to have certain parameters in place.

Reasons To Learn SEO

Everyone should learn basic SEO, because it can be the difference between setting up a page that no one visits and getting attention on the web. With just a little bit of internet marketing technique, you can get the ball rolling for massive popularity on the web. This may take a little bit of time, but it is definitely part of the bigger picture. The following reasons are simple, and the programming skill set you need is very light, so don’t panic.

Simple SEO is, well, Simple

The absolute basics of the optimization you need to get into search engines requires you to do something that anyone can do, create unique content. Your home page has to have writing that is unique to you, and isn’t copied from any other source. This also needs to read well to the end user, so don’t overthink it. If you have more than 1 page, then make sure to write out all the pages carefully, and do not be repetitive. The reason why you want to learn is because this is an easy thing to remember, and it will play well with the standards and practices of all search engines right now.

It Will Ensure You Gain Authority

Authority is nearly everything when you are posting information on the internet. Whether you have a blog or an ecommerce storefront, you need people’s trust. Gaining their trust is not as easy as just putting your page up and waiting for people to give you the time of day. That’s where SEO can come into play. When fully optimized, you will be found online through a variety of search terms, and that will give the end user a semblance of trust for what you’re doing. If you aren’t found with any search, you will just be another page that is lost in the ocean of the online world.

You Will Know When You’re Getting Ripped Off

One of the more compelling reasons why you should learn basic SEO is because you will be able to test whether or not you’re being swindled. There are a lot of companies promising search engine optimization strategies that will get you far in any platform, but how do you know they are doing good work? Well, you can test them and see if they are getting a lot of attention by focusing on what you know about it. If you knew nothing about search, you wouldn’t be able to test whether or not your money is being spent on services that are delivering.